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Clovis points have been found in northeastern Chihuahua that have been dated from 12,000 BC to 7000 BC.
It is thought that these inhabitants were hunter gatherers.
La Cueva De Las Ventanas (The Cave of Windows), a series of cliff dwellings along an important trade route, and Las Jarillas Cave scrambled along the canyons of the Sierra Madre in Northwestern Chihuahua date between AD 12 and belong to the Paquimé culture.
Cuarenta Casas is thought to have been a branch settlement from Paquime to protect the trade route from attack.
Between AD 3 in the northern part of the state along the wide, fertile valley on the San Miguel River the Casas Grandes (Big Houses) culture developed into an advanced civilization.
The Casas Grandes civilization is part of a major prehistoric archaeological culture known as Mogollon which is related to the Ancestral Pueblo culture.
Nueva Vizcaya (New Biscay) was the first province of northern New Spain to be explored and settled by the Spanish.
Around 1528, a group of Spaniard explorers, led by Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, first entered the territory of what is now Chihuahua.
Extensive archaeological evidence shows commerce, agriculture, and hunting at Paquime and Cuarenta Casas (Forty Houses).
Between 15 a epidemic caused a temporary exodus of the small population in the territory of Nueva Vizcaya.
Santa Bárbara became the launching place for expeditions into New Mexico by Spanish conquistadors like Antonio de Espejo, Gaspar Castaño, Antonio Gutiérrez de Umaña, Francisco Leyba de Bonilla, and Vicente de Zaldívar.
Inhabitants of the state later developed farming with the domestication of corn.
An archeological site in northern Chihuahua known as Cerro Juanaqueña revealed squash cultivation, irrigation techniques, and ceramic artifacts dating to around 2000 BC.
On the slope of the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains (around the regions of Casas Grandes, Cuauhtémoc and Parral), there are vast prairies of short yellow grass, the source of the bulk of the state's agricultural production.